French writer and philosopher influenced by Dostoevsky and Nietzsche. Nobel laureate in literature. He voiced the idea that we live in a world without God and without meaning. His view was that it was pointless, even absurd, to search for meaning in life, so the biggest philosophical question was about what things in life carry value. He considered revolts to be the biggest manifestation of the inherent absurdity of human existence, and any attempt to improve society by violent means, including bolshevism and fascism.