English monk, theologian and brilliant logician, whom we wrote about in the chapter ‘Reason and Chimeras’. He was the one that suggested we ‘cut out’ unnecessary assumptions and abstractions from rational reasoning. Ockham considered reason and faith to be entirely separate entities; divine will has free reign and is not bound by rational ideas – knowledge steps purely from the ideas of individuals. Philosophy is also completely distinct from theology and can’t act as its ‘servant’. Likewise, earthly and heavenly authorities are totally different; hence the church should be kept totally separate from the state (he was saying this back in the 1200s!). He is a character in Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose.